Extending the capabilities of compiler-generated function types


Both standalone functions and closures have unique compiler-generated types. The rest of this document will refer to both categories as simply "function types", and will use the phrase "function types without upvars" to refer to standalone functions and closures without upvars.

Today, these function types have a small set of capabilities, which are exposed via trait implementations and implicit conversions.

  • The Fn, FnMut and FnOnce traits are implemented based on the way in which upvars are used.

  • Copy and Clone traits are implemented when all upvars implement the same trait (trivially true for function types without upvars).

  • auto traits are implemented when all upvars implement the same trait.

  • Function types without upvars have an implicit conversion to the corresponding function pointer type.


There are several cases where it is necessary to write a trampoline. A trampoline is a (usually short) generic function that is used to adapt another function in some way.

Trampolines have the caveat that they must be standalone functions. They cannot capture any environment, as it is often necessary to convert them into a function pointer.

Trampolines are most commonly used by compilers themselves. For example, when a dyn Trait method is called, the corresponding vtable pointer might refer to a trampoline rather than the original method in order to first down-cast the self type to a concrete type.

However, trampolines can also be useful in low-level code that needs to interface with C libraries, or even in higher level libraries that can use trampolines in order to simplify their public-facing API without incurring a performance penalty.

By expanding the capabilities of compiler-generated function types it would be possible to write trampolines using only safe code.


The goal of this design note is describe a range of techniques for implementing trampolines (defined below) and some of the feedback regarding those solutions. This design note does not intend to favor any specific solutions, just reflect past discussions. The presence or absence of any particular feedback in this document does not necessarily serve to favor or disfavor any particular solution.


Several mechanisms have been proposed to allow trampolines to be written in safe code. These have been discussed at length in the following places.

PR adding Default implementation to function types:

  • https://github.com/rust-lang/rust/pull/77688

Lang team triage meeting discussions:

  • https://youtu.be/NDeAH3woda8?t=2224
  • https://youtu.be/64_cy5BayLo?t=2028
  • https://youtu.be/t3-tF6cRZWw?t=1186


An adaptor which prevents unwinding into C code

In this example, we are building a crate which provies a safe wrapper around an underlying C API. The C API contains at least one function which accepts a function pointer to be used as a callback:

fn main() {
mod c_api {
    extern {
        pub fn call_me_back(f: extern "C" fn());

We would like to allow users of our crate to safely use their own callbacks. The problem is that if the callback panics, we would unwind into C code and this would be undefined behaviour.

To avoid this, we would like to interpose between the user-provided callback and the C API, by wrapping it in a call to catch_unwind. Unfortunately, the C API offers no way to pass an additional "custom data" field that we could use to store the original function pointer.

Instead, we could write a generic function like this:

fn main() {
use std::{panic, process};

pub fn call_me_back_safely<F: Fn() + Default>(_f: F) {
    extern "C" fn catch_unwind_wrapper<F: Fn() + Default>() {
        if panic::catch_unwind(|| {
            let f = F::default();
        }).is_err() {
    unsafe {

This compiles, and is intended to be used like so:

fn my_callback() {
    println!("I was called!")

fn main() {

However, this will fail to compile with the following error:

error[E0277]: the trait bound fn() {my_callback}: Default is not satisfied

Implementing the Default trait

The solution initially proposed was to implement Default for function types without upvars. Safe trampolines would be written like so:

fn main() {
fn add_one_adapter<F: Fn(i32) + Default>(arg: i32) {
    let f = F::default();
    f(arg + 1);

Discussions of this design had a few central themes.

When should Default be implemented?

Unlike Clone, it intuitively does not make sense for a closure to implement Default just because its upvars are themselves Default. A closure like the following might not expect to ever observe an ID of zero:

fn main() {
fn do_thing() -> impl FnOnce() {
    let id: i32 = generate_id();
    || {

The closure may have certain pre-conditions on its upvars that are violated by code using the Default implementation. That said, if a function type has no upvars, then there are no pre-conditions to be violated.

The general consensus was that if function types are to implement Default, it should only be for those without upvars.

However, this point was also used as an argument against implementing Default: traits like Clone are implemented structurally based on the upvars, whereas this would be a deviation from that norm.

Leaking details / weakening privacy concerns

Anyone who can observe a function type, and can also make use of the Default bound, would be able to safely call that function. The concern is that this may go against the intention of the function author, who did not explicitly opt-in to the Default trait implementation for their function type.

Points against this argument:

  • We already leak this kind of capability with the Clone trait implementation. A function author may write a FnOnce closure and rely on it only being callable once. However, if the upvars are all Clone then the function itself can be cloned and called multiple times.

  • It is difficult to construct practical examples of this happening. The leakage happens in the wrong direction (upstream) to be easily exploited whereas we usually care about what is public to downstream crates.

    Without specialization, the Default bound would have to be explicitly listed which would then be readily visible to consumers of the upstream code.

  • Features like impl Trait make it relatively easy to avoid leaking this capability when it's not wanted.

Points for this argument:

  • The Clone trait requires an existing instance of the function in order to be exploited. The fact that the Default trait gives this capability to types directly makes it sufficiently different from Clone to warrant a different decision.

These discussions also raise the question of whether the Clone trait itself should be implemented automatically. It is convenient, but it leaves a very grey area concerning which traits ought to be implemented for compiler-generated types, and the most conservative option would be to require an opt-in for all traits beyond the basic Fn traits (in the case of function types).

Unnatural-ness of using Default trait

Several people objected on the grounds that Default was the wrong trait, or that the resulting code seemed unnatural or confusing. This lead to proposals involving other traits which will be described in their own sections.

  • Some people do not see Default as being equivalent to the default-constructible concept from C++, and instead see it as something more specialized.

    To avoid putting words in people's mouths I'll quote @Mark-Simulacrum directly:

    I think the main reason I'm not a fan of adding a Default impl here is because you (probably) would never actually use it really as a "default"; e.g. Vec::resize'ing with it is super unlikely. It's also not really a Default but more just "the only value." Certainly the error message telling me that Default is not implemented for &fn() {foo} is likely to be pretty confusing since that does have a natural default too, like any pointer to ZST). That's in some sense just more broadly true though.

  • There were objections on the grounds that Default is not sufficient to guarantee uniqueness of the function value. Code could be written today that exposes a public API with a Default + Fn() bound, expecting all types meeting that bound to have a single unique value.

    If we expanded the set of types which could implement Default + Fn() (such as by stabilizing Fn trait implementations or by making more function types implement Default) then the assumptions of such code would be broken.

    On the other hand, we really can't stop people from writing faulty code and this does not seem like a footgun people are going to accidentally use, in part because it's so obscure.

New lang-item

This was a relatively minor consideration, but it is worth noting that this solution would require making Default a lang item.

Safe transmute

This proposal was to materialize the closure using the machinery being added with the "safe transmute" RFC to transmute from the unit () type.

The details of how this would work in practice were not discussed in detail, but there were some salient points:

  • This solves the "uniqueness" problem, in that ZSTs are by definition unique.

  • It does not help with the "privacy leakage" concerns.

  • It opens up a new can of worms relating to the fact that ZST closure types may still have upvars.

  • Several people expressed something along the lines of:

    if we were going to have a trait that allows this, it might as well be Default, because telling people "no, you need the special default" doesn't really help anything.

    Or, that if it's possible to do this one way with safe code, it should be possible to do it in every way that makes sense.

Singleton or ZST trait

New traits were proposed to avoid using Default to materialize the function values. The considerations here are mostly the same as for the "safe transmute" propsal. One note is that if we were to add a Singleton trait, it would probably make sense for that trait to inherit from the Default trait anyway, and so a Default implementation now would be backwards-compatible.

FnStatic trait

This would be a new addition to the set of Fn traits which would allow calling the function without any self argument at all. As the most restrictive (for the callee) and least restrictive (for the caller) it would sit at the bottom of the Fn trait hierarchy and inherit from Fn.

  • Would be easy to understand for users already familiar with the Fn trait hierarchy.
  • More unambiguously describes a closure with no upvars rather than one which is a ZST.
  • Doesn't solve the problem of accidentally leaking capabilities.
  • Does not force a decision on whether closures should implement Default.

This approach would also generalize the existing closure -> function pointer conversion for closures which have no upvars. Instead of being special-cased in the compiler, the conversion can apply to all types implementing FnStatic. Furthermore, the conversion could be implemented by simply returning a pointer to the FnStatic::call_static function, which makes this very elegant.


With this trait, we can implement call_me_back_safely from the prior example like this:

fn main() {
use std::{panic, process};

pub fn call_me_back_safely<F: FnStatic()>(_f: F) {
    extern "C" fn catch_unwind_wrapper<F: FnStatic()>() {
        if panic::catch_unwind(F::call_static).is_err() {
    unsafe {


Initially proposed by @scalexm, this solution uses the existing implicit conversion from function types to function pointers, but in a const-eval context:

fn main() {
fn add_one_adapter<const F: fn(i32)>(arg: i32) {
    F(arg + 1);

fn get_adapted_function_ptr<const F: fn(i32)>() -> fn(i32) {
  • Avoids many of the pitfalls with implementing Default.
  • Requires giving up the original function type. There could be cases where you still need the original type but the conversion to function pointer is irreversible.
  • It's not yet clear if const-evaluation will be extended to support this use-case.
  • Const evaluation has its own complexities, and given that we already have unique function types, it seems like the original problem should be solvable using the tools we already have available.

Opt-in trait implementations

This was barely touched on during the discussions, but one option would be to have traits be opted-in via a #[derive(...)]-like attribute on functions and closures.

  • Gives a lot of power to the user.
  • Quite verbose.
  • Solves the problem of leaking capabilities.